The world annual yield production of seed cotton has increased in a constant manner since the early 1960s (with an annual average around 2.2%). Yields in seed cotton rose from 0.86t/ha in 1960/61 to 2.14t/ha in 2006/07.
While during the 1960-1980, yields in developed countries were on average more than twice and a half those of developing countries, since the beginning of the 1980s the gap has increasingly narrowed, up to a ratio of 1.4 in 2005. Much of the rise in developing countries’ share can be attributed to improved yields in China, mainly as a result of investment in research and innovation. Cotton fibre yields have also followed the same path than seed cotton yields. Over 1960/61-2006/07 period, fibre output per hectare (world average) grew from 0.3 tons to 0.8 tons. A world average around 0.86 tons is forecasted for 2012/13 by ICAC. Two large increase of the world yield have been recorded in 1980s (+2.5% per annum) and 2000s (according to the ICAC, annual growth rate may reach +3% over the 2000s).
The five largest producers in the period 1990-2006 were, by order of importance, China, the United States, India, Pakistan and the Commonwealth of Independent States (Uzbekistan in particular since 1992). Since the beginning of the 2000s, China recorded higher yields per hectare compared to the other countries with an average of 3.5 tons per hectare for seed cotton (almost 2.5 times the American yield over the period) and 1.1 tons per hectare for cotton fibre (0.82 tons per hectare for the United States).
Cotton Yields, China
Between 1990 and 2007 seed cotton and cotton fibres yields have been multiplied by 1.7 respectively reaching record crops for both seed cotton (4.21 tons per hectare) and cotton fibres (1.3 tons per hectare). ICAC predicted yields to follow this upward trend and finally reach 1.36 tons per hectare in 2012/13.
Cotton Yields, Uzbekistan
The former Soviet Union was able to produce higher cotton yields per hectare than the other major cotton producing countries before 1991. Since the collapse of the Soviet state and over the 1992-2007 period, productivity has been flattening. The annual average output of cottonseed yield of Uzbekistan (the main producing country of this geographical area) over the period 1992-2007 was of approximately 2.35 tons per hectare and of 0.76 tons per hectare for cotton fibre. ICAC’s projections until the end of the decade plan a relative stability of yields for the crop years to come.
Cotton Yields, India
Indian cottonseed yields have dramatically increased since 2002/03, the average yield from 2003/04 to 2006/07 jumped by more than 50% compared to its level over the previous period (1990/91-2002/03). Indian ginning output is particularly high compared to other major producing countries.
Cotton Yields, United States
In regard to United States, second world producing country with 11.1 million tons of cottonseed since the beginning of the 2000s, productivity rate is far above world average yields (+16% above the world yield since the beginning of the decade). Despite this pretty high level, American yields remain far below the ones recorded by China (-14%) or Uzbekistan (-32%) for instance.
Cotton Yields, Pakistan
In regard to Pakistan, fourth world producing country, with an average output of 6 million tonnes of cottonseed grown (since 2000), yields are very similar to the world average.
Cotton Yields, Africa
Although cotton production in Africa is not significant on a global scale, a large number of African countries remain heavily dependent on cotton. For example, cotton accounts for 60% of foreign exchange earnings in Benin. Between 1990 and 2007, West African countries reported cotton yield per hectare at approximately 1.1 tons. Despite the fact that African yields globally remain below the ones of other producing countries, they have seemed to improve recently (+15% in 2000s compared to the average of the years 1990s). Cotton production and productivity levels vary considerably among African countries (e.g. yield in Tchad is 0.6 tons per hectare on average compared to Niger where it reaches 1.95 tons per hectare).
Besides West African countries, the case of Egypt deserves special consideration. Indeed, production and productivity levels were remarkably higher in Egypt than in any other African cotton producing country. Egypt produces nearly 740,000 tons of cotton over the 1990-2007 period (about a fifth of the continental production). In terms of productivity, between 1990 and 2007 its yield per hectare was at 2.4 tons, that is to say, Egypt produced per hectare more than double the cotton of the average West African countries. This performance originates in the fact that cotton is grown under irrigation in Egypt, a way of cultivation that is generally not used in West Africa.
Source by pradeepkoduru